Ankara was established in the middle of the plains of Central Anatolia. Today, this rocky area, where Ankara Castle is located, now carries a small island feature in the center of the city. The ridges that the Çankaya hills are also amongst them, encircle this island, and leave a bowl in the middle. This bowl, which was once a marsh, was dried and opened to settlement in the Republican period. However, also with the influence of increasing population, this area where natural air currents are limited, has significant air pollution problems today. It is hoped that this problem will be reduced when the construction of the natural gas network is completed nowadays.

When we look at the closed surroundings, we see that the mountainous and wooded area in the north forms the threshold of the transition to the Black Sea Region. Kızılcahamam on İstanbul Road, and Ilgaz Mountains in its east are very close to Ankara. Ankara’s airport, two Çubuk Dams and Karagöl are in the south of these ridges and north of Ankara. Like Ankara’s closest point to the sea, the water resources that enable Ankara Province not to Thirst even in the driest seasons are in the north. The areas of the Zonguldak, Kastamonu and Sinop Provinces that are part of the Black Sea coast can be reached from Ankara by a 4-6-hour car journey.

A Flat and steppe area lies in the south of Ankara. Nerarby, Eymir and Mogan lakes are now remain within Ankara. Beynam Forests, a forest island in the middle of the steppe, are also in the south. Gölbaşı District at the edge of Mogan Lake, and an hour or so away, Hirfanlı Dam, and Kesikköprü Dam are all take place in this direction. Konya and Adana can be reached from this direction from Ankara. Konya is 4, and Adana is in the 6-hour road distance to Ankara. Cappadocia and the touristic areas around the surrounding are also in the south, and only a few hours away.

In the west of Ankara, there are several settlements parallel to a few arteries opening to Aegean Region. The roads outgoing to Eskişehir direction provide transport to the Aegean and Mediterranean regions. The closest point on this line is Polatlı District. Polatlı, which is an hour away from Ankara, is one of the wheat silos of Central Anatolia. Sakarya River is born within this district’s borders. Another line goes to Ayaş, Beypazarı, Nallıhan direction. Sarıyar Dam is also in this direction, near Nallıhan. Ayaş is a famous settlement with hot springs and spa. As from Ayaş, this area is a region where garden farming is very common.

Ankara leans on the Elmadağ ridge in the east. On this mountain, which can be reached in a few minutes from Ankara, there are skiing facilities with ski lifts. Touristic hotels and other small organizations in these facilities offer a variety of opportunities.

Elmadag District is on the other slope of the mountain where the district took its name. After this district, you will see Kırıkkale Province. Kızılırmak is the most important natural event shaping this region.

Although Ankara has all the characteristics of the land climate, it can compete with the Mediterranean Regions in terms of the number of sunny days. There are sunny days in the third of the year. The summers are hot and without precipitation. There is a long autumn. A hard but short winter, and a rainy and short spring are amongst the characteristics of this climate.