Ankara is a very old settlement. It is also understood from the archaeological excavations that that it experienced the stone age and mining era, and it was among the places where the Hittite civilization was established. It is known that it was founded by Phrygians in the place of Ankuva, Hittite city in the 8th century BC.

According to the mith, it was founded by Midas in a place with a ship anchor (Anker). In the later centuries, Ankara experienced the Lydian, Persian and Byzantine periods. The city was called Ancora during the reign of Galat. Interestingly, the ship's anchor was used as city coat of arms on the coins printed at the time of the Romans.

The name of Ankara under Seljuk ruling was ZatülSelasil. Ankara was kept by the crusader armies for a while, afterwards it adıexperienced the eras of Danishmends, Mongols and Ahi-Order, then it was captured by Suleiman Pasha the Conqueror of Rumelia, the eldest son of Orhan Gazi, and was added to Ottoman land.

After the Battle of Ankara between Timur and Yıldırım Beyazıt in the plain of Çubuk, the city stayed under the ruling of Timur for a while; but it was shifted to Ottoman ruling after a few years.

In the time of Mehmet the Conqueror, Ankara was a governorate (state) center, then it became a Sanjak Beylic, after the Tanzimat it became a governorate center again. Ankara was taken by the Egyptian army in 1833 but it was recovered by the Ottomans after a short time.

The first plan of the city was performed by Vinke, in 1839. Railroad has reached Ankara in 1892.

When Mustafa Kemal and Representative Committee have first come to Ankara on 27 December 1919, the population of the city was around 25 thousand. The electricity, supplied from a generator at certain hours, was brought to the city in 1918. There was a small bazaar at the western side of the castle with a hotel, inn and restaurants, as well as two-storey wooden houses and a train station that can be reached after the cemetery. There was no road, asphalt, infrastructure. It was dusty in the summer, muddy during the winter. There was no other vehicle than carts. It appeared like a typical, modest, Central Anatolian city standing on its own two feet.

Ankara, the capital of the new Turkish State Republic of Turkey, is located in the northwest of Central Anatolian Region, one of the seven geographical regions of Turkey. On the earth, Ankara Province is located between 38 43 40 41 north latitudes and 30 51 34 05 east longitudes. Its acreage is 25 437 km2.

Elevation from sea level of Ankara Plain, on which a significant part of the city is built, is around 850 m. The altitude (elevation from sea level) of Çankaya is 857 m. The elevation of Ankara Castle, which is known to be the initial establishment place of the city, reaches 980 m.

Ankara, which is the second biggest city of Turkey in terms of population, has 24 districts called as Akyurt, Altındağ, Ayaş, Balâ, Beypazarı, Çamlıdere, Çankaya, Çubuk, Elmadağ, Etimesgut, Evren, Gölbaşı, Güdül, Haymana, Kalecik, Kazan, Keçiören, Kızılcahamam, Mamak, Nallıhan, Polatlı, Sincan, Şereflikoçhisar and Yenimahalle.

Ankara, achieved a municipal administration in today’s sense in 1924, just after the foundation of the Republic. After 1984, Ankara Metropolitan Municipality and 5 district municipalities (Çankaya, Altındağ, Yenimahalle, Mamak, Keçiören) were established to cope with the problems in metropolitan scale. With the establishment of Sincan, Etimesgut ve Gölbaşı districts, the number of district municipalities in Ankara reached 8.

History of Çankaya

Although the history of Çankaya district cannot be separated from the history of Ankara, its actual story starts with the Republic. In the first days of the War of Independence, Çankaya looked like a tableland with the vineyards and orchards. A few vineyard houses located in the middle of the prairie could be barely identified among greenery. The city was ending at the hill where Numune Hospital is located now. The place of İncesu stream was a swamp formed by floods. Cebeci and its surroundings was meadowland. Melon and watermelon, vineyard or orchard was planted from place to place.

The glorious welcome for Mustafa Kemal Pasha at the Dikmen Hills and reserving him a small vineyard house with a pool was the milestone for Çankaya. The vineyard house reserved for Mustafa Kemal was restored and became a pavilion. Prime minister’s residence was built just next to it.

The countries that recognized the State of Turkey have moved their embassies from Istanbul to Çankaya after constructing their buildings to the places allocated to them. Hence, Yenişehir and Atatürk Boulevards got full and overflowed to Sakarya and İzmir Streets. In 1950’s, after an intense domestic immigration, Ankara has been surrounded by the slums. Unfortunately, Çankaya district get the highest share of it.

Çankaya was promoted to being the central district on 9 June 1936. Gölbaşı and Elmadağ, which were sub-district then, were tied to our district. Afterwards Kayaş, Cebeci, Bahçelievler and Dikmen became sub-districts. In 1960, with the abolishment of the sub-district organizations, Kayaş, Cebeci, Bahçelievler and Dikmen became the quarters of Çankaya. On 30 November 1983, Mamak and Gölbaşı were made districts and they were separated from Çankaya.

Today Çankaya has 124 quarters. The population of Çankaya is 922,536 according to 2017 population census. However, Çankaya has a unique difference compared to other metropolitan districts; its day population exceeds 2 million. This is because a significant part of the organizations that direct the social, cultural, politic and economic life of Ankara are within the boundaries of Çankaya. It serves to the leaders of government and their guests after the republic.

Çankaya is the most creditable, most attractive district of Ankara and it is a capital within capital; because, Presidential Palace, GNAT, Prime Minister’s Office, Force Commands (General Staff, Land Forces, Air Forces, Naval Forces and the Gendarmerie General Command), ministries, universities, public institutions, embassies, important commercial, cultural and social centers are located within the boundaries of Çankaya.